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\ Antibiotics \


  • Generic name: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
  • Trade names: Cipro, Ciprobay, Ciproxin, Ciproxine, Ciflox, Proquin
  • Dosages:
    Tablets 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg
    Powder for oral suspension 250 mg/5 mL (5%) (when reconstituted); 500 mg/5 mL (10%) (when reconstituted)
    Tablets, extended-release 500 mg, 1000 mg
    Injection (premixed) 200 mg, 400 mg; Injection (concentrate) 10 mg/mL
  • Pharmacologic category: Fluoroquinolone antibiotic, RX only
  • FDA approved: October 22, 1987
  • Pregnancy risk factor: C

Medical uses

Ciprofloxacin is a a fluoroquinolone antibiotic active against a broad range of bacteria. It is marketed by Bayer under the brand name Cipro®.

Ciprofloxacin indicated uses include:

  • Urinary tract infections: urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis.
  • Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis.
  • Lower respiratory infections (but not pneumococcal): pneumonia, bronchitis, tracheobronchitis.
  • Acute sinusitis.
  • Skin, soft tissue and wound infections.
  • Bone and joint infections.
  • Complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole).
  • Foodborne diseases and iInfectious diarrhea: Escherichia coli infection, campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, cystoisosporiasis (off-label).
  • Typhoid fever (enteric fever).
  • STDs: gonorrhea, chancroid
  • Complicated UTIs and pyelonephritis in children (1 to 17 years of age).
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax (in adults and children).

Pharmacological characteristics

Ciprofloxacin for Urinary Tract Infections

Antibiotics are the mainstay treatment for complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). The choice of antibiotic and length of treatment depend on the patient's history and the urine tests that identify the offending bacteria. The sensitivity test is especially useful in helping select the most effective medication.

Escherichia coli is the leading cause of UTIs, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp.

Fluoroquinolones are the standard alternatives to Sulfonamides (TMP-SMX), and sometimes are preferred antibacterials for UTI.

Ciprofloxacin is very effective for the treatment of acute or complicated UTIs19. This antibiotic is frequently used to treat urinary infections because of its excellent activity against majority of urinary tract pathogenic bacteria, and particularly E. coli. In fact, ciprofloxacin urinary concentrations are 10-50 fold higher than plasma. Ciprofloxacin is widely used in the areas with the high rates of bacterial resistance to TMP-SMX.

Effectiveness:
Ciprofloxacin has a success rate of about 90-96% in eradicating bacteriuria16.

Dosage for Urinary Tract Infections:

Acute uncomplicated cystitis (simple bladder infection): the recommended dosage is 250 mg twice daily for 3 days. In severe condition the duration of therapy is extended up to 7-10 days. Seven-day regimen is recommended for older women4.

Prophylaxis regimen for women with recurrent UTIs: 125 mg taken after intercourse10.

Uncomplicated pyelonephritis (kidney infection) in adults: the recommended ciprofloxacin dosage is 500-750 mg twice daily for 7-14 days.

Benefits

Concerns

Unlabeled uses

Mode of action

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial that inhibits (prevents the activity) DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme that is involved in the replication, transcription, and repair of bacterial DNA. Topoisomerase IV is an enzyme known to play a key role in the partitioning of the chromosomal DNA during bacterial cell division.

Discussion Boards & Forums

References

Written by HealthyStock.net, October 2009.
Last updated: March, 2016

Interesting facts


Ciprofloxacin
  • Ciprofloxacin is the fluoroquinolone most studied in children, mostly when used to treat pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF).

Source: http://www.healthystock.net/drugs/ciprofloxacin.shtml


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