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\ Antibiotics \
Food poisoning (acute bacterial gastroenteritis) is an illness caused by the consumption of contaminated food or water. The most common causes of food poisoning are bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus aureus and viruses Norovirus.
Difference between Food poisoning and Traveler's diarrhea
It is important to note the difference between food poisoning and traveler's diarrhea.
Traveler's diarrhea is generally manifested by malaise, sickness, and abdominal cramps, followed by the sudden onset of watery diarrhea. The most common causes are Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Norovirus, Rotavirus.
While food poisoning is often caused by bacteria, this illness may result from ingesting a poison (toxin) produced by toxin-forming bacteria (such as Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus), not from the bacteria itself, or from eating poisonous plants and animals. In addition to diarrhea food poisoning is often accompanied with more severe vomiting and other symptoms.
However, the treatment principles are similar for food poisoning and traveler's diarrhea.
Ciprofloxacin for Food poisoning and Traveler's diarrhea
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is a prescription broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic highly active against Gram-negative bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is a good antibiotic for traveler's diarrhea and food poisoning due to its activity against food-borne bacteria such as E. coli, Vibrio cholera, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia, Salmonella and Shigella.
Ciprofloxacin is a safe and effective prophylaxis for travelers' diarrhea and is superior to Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole2. Ciprofloxacin is upto 95% effective in preventing traveler's diarrhea4.
Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is supportive and antibiotic use is controversial3.
Note: The mainstay of infectious diarrhea treatment is adequate rehydration.
Treatment of Infectious diarrhea:
Prophylaxis of Infectious diarrhea:
500 mg once daily2.
Alternative treatment for children between the ages of 2 and 8 years, for pregnant women, and other cases fluoroquinolones contraindications:
Tendinopathy and tendon rupture: There have been reports of tendon inflammation (commonly Achilles, shoulder, or hand tendons) and rupture with fluoroquinolones. The risk is increased in older adults ( > 60 years of age), individuals receiving concurrent corticosteroids. Other factors that may independently predispose to tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders.
Children: Do not use ciprofloxacin in children younger than 18 years of age because of increased incidence of disorders related to joints and cartilage.
Prolonged QT interval. Fluoroquinolones may prolong QTc interval. Patients with a history of QTc prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia, or hypomagnesemia are at higher risk.
Phototoxicity: Avoid excessive sunlight; may cause moderate-to-severe phototoxicity reactions.
Crystalluria: Rarely, crystalluria has occurred. Ensure adequate hydration.
Peripheral sensory disturbances: Discontinue if symptoms sensory or sensorimotor disturbances occur, including paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias, and weakness.
Pregnancy & Lactation:
Written by HealthyStock.net, October 2009.
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